Michael J. Pfeifer, “Lynching and Criminal Justice in Regional Context: Iowa, Wyoming, and Louisiana, 1878–1946” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Iowa, 1998).
For writings by which the movement that is antilynching and systematically analyzed US mob physical violence, see Ida B. Wells, Southern Horrors and Other Writings:…
… The Anti-lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900, ed. Jacqueline Jones Royster (Boston, 1997); nationwide Association when it comes to development of Colored People, Thirty several years of Lynching in the us, 1889–1918 (1919; nyc, 1969); Arthur F. Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill, 1933); and Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (1929; Notre Dame, 2001). Ida B. Wells along with her campaign against lynching have actually spawned respected scholarship in the last few years. See, for instance, Paula J. Giddings, Ida: A Sword among Lions; Ida B. Wells therefore the Campaign against Lynching (ny, 2009); James western Davidson, “They Say”: Ida B. Wells plus the Reconstruction of Race (ny, 2008); Patricia A. Schechter, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and United states Reform, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill, 2000); and Angela D. Sims, Ethical problems of Lynching: Ida B. Wells’s Interrogation of United states Terror (ny, 2010). For early twentieth-century social technology research on lynching, see James Elbert Cutler, Lynch Law: a study to the reputation for Lynching in the us (1905; nyc, 1969); Paul Walton Ebony, “Lynchings in Iowa, ” Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 10 (April 1912), 187–99; Paul Walton Ebony, “Attempted Lynchings in Iowa, ” Annals of Iowa, 11 (Jan. 1914), 260–85; Genevieve Yost, “History of Lynchings in Kansas, ” Kansas Historical Quarterly, 2 (might 1933), 182–219; John Dollard, Caste and Class in a Southern Town ( brand New Haven, 1938); and Frank Shay, Judge Lynch: His First 100 years (ny, 1938). Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology regarding the United states Frontier, 1600–1860 (Middletown, 1973); Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: historic Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism (New York, 1975); H. John Rosenbaum and Peter C. Sederberg, Vigilante Politics (Philadelphia, 1976). C. Vann Woodward, Origins associated with the brand New Southern, 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge, 1951). From the neglect of lynching in southern historic scholarship until the belated 20th century as well as on the awakening of general general public curiosity about mob physical physical physical violence in current years, see W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “Conclusion: Reflections on Lynching Scholarship, ” in Lynching Reconsidered: New Perspectives into the research of Mob Violence, ed. William D. Carrigan (ny, 2008), 205–18, esp. 213.
Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames therefore the ladies’ Campaign against Lynching (1979; ny, 1993), xx–xxi. See additionally Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: ladies, Rape, and Racial Violence, ” in Powers of want: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Barr Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (nyc, 1983), 328–49. Robert L. Zangrando, The naacp Crusade against Lynching, 1909–1950 (Philadelphia, 1980), 18. James R. McGovern, Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge, 1982); Howard Smead, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker (nyc, 1986). No Crooked Death: Coatesville, Pennsylvania and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker (Urbana, 1991); and Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser, Coatesville and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker: Death in a Pennsylvania Steel Town (Charleston, 2011) for a case study of a northern lynching, see Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser. Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations into the United states South since Emancipation (nyc, 1984), 306–10. For profound generational shifts in southern historiography, particularly in ways to physical violence, sex, and battle, see David Thelen, “What We See and cannot See into the last: An Introduction, ” Journal of American History, 83 (March 1997), 1217–20; Joel Williamson, “Wounds Not Scars: Lynching, the nationwide Conscience, while the United states Historian, ” ibid., 1221–53; and “Referees’ Reports: Edward L. Ayers, David W. Blight, George M. Frederickson, Robin D. G. Kelley, David Levering Lewis, and Steven M. Stowe, ” ibid., 1254–67. Trudier Harris, Exorcising Blackness: historic and lynching that is literary Burning Rituals (Bloomington, 1984). For the next interpretation of lynching, emphasizing battle and ritual, see Orlando Patterson, Rituals of Blood: The effects of Slavery in Two American Centuries (ny, 1998), 169–231.
George C. Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865–1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings” (Baton Rouge, 1990), 8–9, 11–13, 251. W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching within the brand brand New Southern: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930 (Urbana, 1993), 15. See additionally W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed., Under Sentence of Death: Lynching when you look at the Southern (Chapel Hill, 1997). Edward L. Ayers, The Promise regarding the brand New Southern: Life after Reconstruction (nyc, 1992), 156–57, 495–96n69. On white mob physical physical violence when you look at the context associated with connection with African People in the united states when you look at the Jim Crow Southern, see Leon Litwack, difficulty at heart: Ebony Southerners when you look at the chronilogical age of Jim Crow (New York, 1999). Stewart E. Tolnay and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: a research of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930 (Urbana, 1995), 99–100, 256–57.
For a work that includes study of nonsouthern regions and a brief but suggestive conversation of lynching physical violence ahead of the Civil War, see Philip Dray, In the Hands of Persons fre sex chat Unknown: The Lynching of Black America (nyc, 2002). Michael J. Pfeifer, harsh Justice: Lynching and United states Society, 1878–1946 (Urbana, 2004). On lynching in addition to death penalty in postbellum Tennessee and Florida, see Margaret Vandiver, Lethal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions into the Southern ( brand New Brunswick, 2006). On lynching when you look at the Midwest in addition to West as well as its relationship to southern lynching, see Michael J. Pfeifer, “Introduction, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie: United states Mob Violence away from Southern, ed. Michael J. Pfeifer (Urbana, 2013), 1–12. For a analysis that is cross-regional of physical violence and money punishment in U.S. History, see Howard W. Allen, Jerome M. Clubb, and Vincent A. Lacey, Race, Class, and also the Death Penalty: Capital Punishment in United states History (Albany, 2008).
William D. Carrigan, The generating of a Lynching customs: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836–1916 (Urbana, 2004), 12–15. Michael J. Pfeifer, The Roots of harsh Justice: Origins of American Lynching (Urbana, 2011). For social analysis of authorities torture of African Us americans into the mid-twentieth-century South, see Silvan Niedermeier, “Violence, Visibility, and also the Investigation of Police Torture when you look at the United states South, 1940–1955, ” in Violence and Visibility in Modern History, ed. Jurgen Martschukat and Silvan Niedermeier (nyc, 2013), 91–92.
Probably the most accurate count available is that almost 2,500 African Us citizens were murdered by lynch mobs from 1882 through 1930 in Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Alabama, sc, Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, and new york.
See Tolnay and Beck, Festival of Violence, ix. This tally excludes six states which were wholly or partly southern inside their historic development. Tuskegee Institute information enumerates an overall total of 793 lynching victims between 1882 and 1968 in 6 states regarding the periphery that is southern Virginia, western Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Texas. See Zagrando, naacp Crusade against Lynching, 4. Ken Gonzales-Day, Lynching within the West: 1850–1935 (Durham, N.C., 2006).